HCG’s haematology and bone marrow transplantation department is a well-equipped unit
of experienced and skilled haematologists and BMT experts who are specialised in the
diagnosis and management of a wide range of benign and malignant disorders of blood
and bone marrow.
Centers largest network BMT Centers
consultants and 60 nurses - Largest team of trained
All BMT Room with separate HEPA filters.
0.3 mm filtered positive airflow with 12 air
exchanges per hour.
MDT for all complicated and BMT patients
Benign Haematological Disorders:
Red Blood Cell (RBC) Disorders:
Red blood cell disorders are those that affect the red blood cells, whose
key function is to carry oxygen to various parts of the body. Common red
blood cell disorders include Sickle Cell Anaemia, Aplastic Anaemia
White Blood Cell (WBC) Disorders:
WBC disorders are associated with the abnormality of white blood cells or
leukocytes, which control the body’s immune system. In WBC disorders, the
white blood cells are either very high or very low in number. Major white
blood cell disorders include Neutropenia and MDS
Platelets have a significant role in homeostasis and wound healing. In the
case of platelet disorders, either the number of platelets increases or
decreases or the functioning of the platelets is affected. Some of the major
platelet disorders include ITP and Dengue.
In the case of bleeding disorders, when an injury occurs, the blood does
not clot, which will eventually lead to various complications ranging from
mild to severe. Haemophilia is one of the common bleeding
In the case of clotting disorders, the blood clots unexpectedly in the
veins and arteries and affects the blood flow and functioning of the organs.
If the clot occurs in legs, it is known as Deep Vein Thrombosis
(DVT) and if
it occurs in the lungs, it is known as Pulmonary Embolism.
Malignant Haematological Disorders/Blood Cancers:
Leukaemia is a form of blood cancer wherein the bone marrow makes many
white blood cells that aren’t normal and produces too many which get into
the bloodstream. Major types of leukaemia are AML, ALL, CML & CLL.
This cancer begins in infection-fighting cells and is largely present in
the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow. There are over 60+ types of
lymphoma; however, it is broadly classified into two types -
Lymphoma & Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
Myeloma occurs in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. This cancer
affects and damages the bones, immune system, kidneys and red blood cell.
Multiple Myeloma is the most common type of myeloma.
Early detection and timely treatment are important for
successful blood cancer
treatment. It’s critical to diagnose and
classify the disease correctly with the help of high-end specific tests.
Chemotherapy, radiation therapy and bone marrow transplantation are the common
treatment methods used to treat blood cancers.
However, bone marrow transplantation is largely preferred as a curative option
the patient is at a high risk of relapse.
Bone Marrow Transplant / Stem Cell Transplant
Stem cell transplant or bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure that
replaces the destroyed or damaged bone marrow cells or stem cells with
healthy bone marrow cells.
It involves the extraction of healthy stem cells, filtration
transferring them back to the donor itself (Auto Transplant) or to another
individual, who is called the recipient/ donor. (Allogenic Transplant)
Why is Stem Cell Transplant required?
The goal of stem cell/ bone marrow transplant is to treat many diseases and
a few types of cancer successfully. For some diseases, a stem cell/bone
marrow transplant serves as the only potential cure.
A stem cell/bone marrow transplant becomes necessary
The existing bone marrow cells are damaged, destroyed or not
functioning optimally due to health conditions such as aplastic
anaemia, leukaemia, etc. A bone marrow transplantation in this case
helps patients have a healthy, functioning marrow.
The immune system needs to be regenerated to fight the existing or
residual cancers that could not be treated completely with radiation
The patient suffers from a health condition that affects the
production of bone marrow cells or other serious immune system
The normal functioning of the immune system is to be restored after
high doses of chemotherapy and radiation that are given to treat
malignant health conditions. This transplant, which is known as
rescue, replaces the damaged bone marrow with the healthy bone
marrow. This is commonly performed in diseases like lymphoma and
Types of Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow transplant is categorised depending on the source of the
healthy stem cells. In
other words, the classification is made based on who the donor is. There are three types
bone marrow transplant:
Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant:
As the name says, during an autologous bone marrow transplant, the patient is
itself the donor. The stem cells are carefully
extracted before the patient receives high-dose radiation or chemotherapy and are
stored in the freezer. After the chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the stem cells are
put back into the patient’s body, where they start producing normal blood cells.
Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant:
The term “allo” means different. During an allogeneic bone marrow transplant, the
stem cells are extracted from another individual, known as the donor, based on
his/her HLA type (genetic match). The HLA type of the donor’s stem cells should
match with the HLA type of the recipient’s. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is
further classified into 2 subtypes:
1) Related Donor Bone Marrow Transplant:
In this type of transplant, the donor is picked among siblings, parents or children
and transplant is initiated after confirming the HLA type matches. When the donor’s
genetic make-up matches the recipient’s genetic make-up at least by 50%, it is
called a Haploidentical / Half-matched transplant .
2) Unrelated Donor Bone Marrow Transplant:
Unrelated donor or matched unrelated donor (MUD) is someone who
is unrelated to the
patient but has an HLA type that matches with that of the patient’s. Unrelated
donors are found through bone marrow registries.
Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant:
During an umbilical cord blood transplant, the stem cells are collected from the
umbilical cord at the time of the childbirth. These stem cells are tested, typed and
stored until they are used for transplantation.
No, not all blood disorders are genetic.
However, certain blood
disorders are transferred from parents to their children.
Examples: thalassaemia, sickle cell anaemia, haemophilia,
aplastic anaemia, etc.
Common treatment methods used to treat blood cancers are
chemotherapy, radiation therapy and stem cell transplant.
Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs that stop the growth of
cancer cells within the body. Radiation therapy is also used to
destroy the cancer cells within the body. The last treatment
method is the stem cell transplant, which is the curative
approach towards blood cancers. During stem cell
transplantation, existing bone marrow cells are replaced with
healthy bone marrow cells received from a donor.
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) typing is a genetic test used
find a match for bone marrow and cord blood transplants. HLA
a type of protein or marker that is found on most of the
in the body.
A close match between the recipient’s and donor’s HLA
essential for the bone marrow or cord marrow transplant to
Siblings are the best possible donors for stem cell donation
in about 30% of the cases, the brothers and sisters serve as
good match for the patient.
If there is trouble with having an HLA-matched sibling, then
next choice is the patient’s parents or children, where
a possibility of a half-matched HLA. Since half of the HLA
markers come from mother and another half from the father,
chances of other family members being a match are highly
When there is no suitable donor available within the family,
stem cells are to be received by an unrelated donor. In this
case, the stem cells are procured from a domestic or
HCG – The Specialist in Cancer Care is tied up with all
national and international bone marrow registry to perform a
quick search for the suitable donor and facilitate the
Usually, it takes 2 working days to find out whether or not
suitable donor match is available in the registry.
No, there are no charges for preliminary donor search. However,
when the suitable donor is found, the patient has to bear the
charges for the stem cell procurement. This fee shall be paid to
the donor registry.
No, the patient and the donor do not have to
be of the same
blood group. There are about 6-10 major HLA markers that should
match for a transplant to be successful. If these markers match,
the transplant can be performed even between the donor and
recipient of different blood groups.
No , the bone pieces are not removed during a
transplant. The stem cells from the donors are collected through
peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation, wherein the blood is
drawn through an IV and is passed through a machine that
separates stem cells from other blood components. The remaining
blood components are given back to the donor immediately, and
the stem cells are given to the recipient.
Around 90% of the donations are made through the
method of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation. The
is drawn intravenously and passed through a machine called
Apheresis that separates stem cells from other blood
which are later transferred back to the donor, and the stem
cells are transfused to the recipient.
Another method to collect the stem cells is the bone marrow
harvest. During this procedure, the stem cells are collected
placing the needle into the soft centre of the bone, where
marrow lies. Hip bones and sternum are the common sites of
marrow harvesting. Although this procedure is performed in
operation theatre, there is no surgery involved here.
Stem cell donation does not cause any serious problems among
donors. Not more than five percent of the donor’s marrow is
harvested, and therefore, the donors need not worry about their
immune system being affected. These stem cells replace
themselves within 4-6 weeks.
The potential donor is made to undergo several tests to
her health and genetic make-up, especially the HLA type.
the HLA type is matched, the stem cells will be either
through bone marrow harvest or peripheral blood stem cell
donation - the latter is being more commonly used now.
The donor will be given growth factor injection 2-3 days
the donation. The donor will also be asked to get
for 1-3 days.