Ewing Sarcoma - Symptoms, Signs and Causes

Ewing sarcoma does not cause any symptoms in most patients during the early stages of the disease. Also, the commonly observed Ewing tumor symptoms, such as fatigue, bone pain, and loss of appetite, overlap with other conditions. The exact cause of Ewing sarcoma is not known.

Who is mainly affected by Ewing Sarcoma?

Ewing sarcoma may occur to any person. However, specific populations are more likely to develop this condition than others. Ewing sarcoma commonly occurs in individuals during puberty, as there is rapid bone growth during this period. Children between the ages of 10 and 20 are more likely to be affected by Ewing sarcoma. Males are at higher risk of developing this condition than females.

What are the Ewing Sarcoma Symptoms?

Some of the Ewing sarcoma symptoms include:

What are the Ewing Sarcoma Causes?

Chromosomal changes in a cell's DNA

The Ewing sarcoma causes are not known. However, it is believed that, like other cancers, Ewing sarcoma also occurs due to gene mutations. There are two types of genes present in the cell. One is the tumor suppressor gene that controls cell division and repairs any defect in DNA, while the other is the oncogene, which is responsible for cell division and growth. Due to certain factors, the tumor suppressor gene is turned off, or the oncogene is turned on, resulting in malignant conditions. It is believed that genetic changes in the genes are not inherited; rather, they occur during the child's life.

An alteration in the EWSR1 gene causes Ewing sarcoma. This gene is present on chromosome 22. The mutation is done through translocation. During translocation, a piece of chromosome 11, chromosome 21, or another chromosome is translocated on chromosome 22, resulting in turning on the EWSR1 gene.


There are several Ewing sarcoma symptoms. However, these symptoms overlap with those of other conditions, making the Ewing sarcoma diagnosis difficult. Ewing sarcoma symptoms include fatigue, fever, bone pain, pathological fracture, unexplained weight loss, swelling at the site of the tumor, and a lump. The Ewing sarcoma cause is not known. However, it is believed to be due to a mutation in the gene controlling cell growth and division.

Frequently Asked Questions

Pain is not usually an early symptom of Ewing sarcoma. As the disease progresses, patients experience intermittent pain, particularly at night or during exercise. However, in advanced conditions, persistent pain is one of the signs of Ewing sarcoma. Patients may also experience severe, intense pain due to a tumor-induced pathological fracture.

Sarcoma is a malignant condition that begins in the connective tissues, such as cartilage, bones, and muscles. It occurs due to a mutation in the gene controlling the growth and division of the cells.

The common sites for developing Ewing sarcoma are the hands, feet, arms, pelvis, legs, chest, skull, and spine.

Ewing sarcoma affects the bones in several places, such as the pelvis, chest wall, legs, hand, spine, and skull. Apart from the bones, Ewing sarcoma also affects the cartilage and nerves.

In many patients, Ewing sarcoma may not cause any pain, especially during the early stages of the disease.