Causes, Signs, and Symptoms of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Patients with AML have multiple symptoms with varying severity based on the degree of anemia. Various acute myeloid leukemia causes exist, some of which are modifiable. Identifying the causes and preventing them is important to reduce the occurrence of AML.

Who is mainly affected by Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may occur in any individual. However, certain population groups are more vulnerable to AML compared to other population groups. Adults ≥65 years of age are at higher risk of developing AML compared to those <65 years of age. Men are at higher risk of developing AML. People exposed to harmful radiation (nuclear reactor accidents), toxic chemicals (benzene), and those who smoke are more commonly affected by AML. Individuals with a history of radiation therapy or chemotherapy, underlying medical conditions, such as myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia, thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera, and genetic conditions, such as Down syndrome, have a higher risk for AML.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

The signs and symptoms of myeloid leukemia may vary from one patient to another. Following are some of the common acute myeloid leukemia symptoms:

Most Common Acute Myeloid Leukemia Causes

Some of the common acute myeloid leukemia causes include:

When to See an Oncologist?

If the patients experience fever, pain, fatigue, easy bruising, bleeding from the nose or gums, frequent infections, and shortness of breath, they should consult an oncologist.


AML blood cancer symptoms include fever, infection, pale skin, shortness of breath, and easy bruising. AML cancer causes are smoking, chemical exposure, history of radiation therapy, family history, and underlying genetic conditions.

Frequently Asked Questions

The bone marrow produces blood cells. These cells are formed and mature before being released into the blood. In acute myeloid leukemia, the developing cells have mutations in their DNA that prevent their maturation.

A direct relationship between stress and AML has not been found. However, chronic stress may affect the immune system and is a risk factor for AML.

AML affects the blood and bone marrow in the early stages. In advanced stages, the organs affected include the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. In some cases, the brain is also involved in AML.

Patients with leukemia may have white blood cells in the range of 100,000 to 400,000 cells/µL at diagnosis.

It has been found that patients with AML are at a 17% increased risk of developing other cancers, including kidney cancer, oral or throat cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer.