Treatment and Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer - A Detailed Guide

For the effective management of prostate cancer, it is always important to choose the right specialist. At HCG Cancer Hospital, we house a dedicated uro-oncology department with a robust team of prostate cancer specialists that specializes in managing prostate cancer with advanced diagnostic and treatment facilities.

Procedures or Tests for Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

When one presents with the symptoms of prostate cancer, the doctor will initially recommend a physical exam. If anything alarming is discovered during the physical exam, further tests will be recommended. The following are the different tests available for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Physical Exam and Health History

When one presents with the symptoms of prostate cancer, the doctor will initially recommend a physical exam. If anything alarming is discovered during the physical exam, further tests will be recommended. The following are the different tests available for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Physical Exam and Health History

Your healthcare provider will conduct a thorough medical history review, assessing risk factors and potential symptoms of prostate cancer. A comprehensive physical examination will also be performed to evaluate your overall health.

Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)

During a DRE, your doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel for any irregularities, such as lumps or enlargement, in the prostate gland.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

The PSA blood test measures the level of prostate-specific antigen, a protein produced by the prostate gland. This method of testing for prostate cancer is simple and effective. However, it is important to note that other factors can also influence PSA levels, leading to the need for further evaluation.


PSMA PET scans use a radioactive tracer targeting prostate-specific membrane antigens (PSMA). As an important diagnostic test for prostate cancer, this technique provides highly detailed images to diagnose and stage prostate cancer accurately.

Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS)

TRUS involves inserting a small ultrasound probe into the rectum to create real-time images of the prostate. It aids in visualizing the size, shape, and any abnormalities in the prostate.

Biomarker Test

Biomarker tests, such as the 4Kscore, assess the risk of aggressive prostate cancer by analyzing specific biomarkers in the blood, enhancing the accuracy of the diagnosis.


If initial screenings suggest potential cancer, a biopsy is performed, and this is an important diagnostic test for prostate cancer. During this procedure, small tissue samples are collected from the prostate for microscopic examination. Biopsy results classify findings into categories:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan

MRI scans offer detailed imaging of the prostate, helping to identify the location, size, and characteristics of suspicious areas. This aids in effective prostate cancer treatment planning.

Bone Scan

Bone scans are employed to detect the potential spread of prostate cancer to bones, a common site of metastasis. It is an important prostate diagnosis test that helps determine the extent of the disease.

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan

CT scans provide cross-sectional images that assist in evaluating lymph nodes and other pelvic structures for signs of cancer spread, aiding in staging and treatment decisions.

Effective Prostate Cancer Treatment or Therapies

Prostate Cancer Surgery

Prostate cancer surgery is a common treatment option that involves the removal of cancerous tissue from the prostate gland or the entire prostate gland, which is known as a prostatectomy. This is often considered the best treatment for prostate cancer in its early stages. Based on individual case parameters, the following surgical approaches may be recommended.

Radiation therapy for Prostate Cancer

Radiation therapy is a localized prostate cancer treatment approach that uses high-energy rays to target and destroy cancer cells. There are different types of radiation therapy for prostate cancer:

Heating Prostate Tissue

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a technique that uses focused ultrasound waves to heat and destroy cancerous prostate tissue. It is a minimally invasive procedure with fewer side effects and a shorter recovery period.

Freezing Prostate Tissue

Cryotherapy, also known as cryoablation, involves freezing prostate tissue to kill cancer cells. This prostate cancer treatment is typically considered for localized prostate cancer or when other treatments have failed.

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

Hormone therapy, also called androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), is used to block the effects of testosterone, a hormone that fuels the growth of prostate cancer cells. Also referred to as prostate cancer medication in some cases, hormone therapy is reported to have a positive impact on prostate cancer management.


This is a surgical procedure where the testicles are removed, reducing testosterone production. Orchiectomy is a less common approach due to the availability of medications for hormone therapy.

Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or slow their growth. It may be used when prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Immunotherapy harnesses the body's immune system to identify and attack cancer cells. Immunotherapy for prostate cancer may work in the following ways:

Targeted Drug Therapy

Targeted therapies aim to inhibit specific molecules or pathways involved in cancer growth. These therapies are designed to be more precise and have fewer side effects compared to chemotherapy.

Prostate Cancer Supportive Therapy

Prostate cancer supportive therapy is recommended for patients who are in the terminal stages of prostate cancer. Supportive care or palliative care helps patients manage pain and other discomfort caused by the disease. Palliative care aids in improving the quality of life for prostate cancer patients.

Considering Points to Keep in Mind While Opting for a Treatment

Why Choose HCG for Treatment and Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer?

At HCG, we are committed to providing comprehensive care for prostate cancer patients. Our dedicated team of prostate cancer specialists specializes in diagnosing, treating, and supporting individuals with prostate cancer, ensuring the best possible outcomes, and providing compassionate care. The best prostate cancer treatment facilities available at HCG have helped many patients in India and around the world conquer prostate cancer and live fulfilling lives.


Prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment involve a range of procedures and therapies tailored to individual cases. Early prostate cancer detection, informed decision-making, and comprehensive care are essential for effectively managing it and improving long-term outcomes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Prostate cancer is treatable at various stages, and the outcome depends on factors like the stage at diagnosis, the aggressiveness of the cancer, and the chosen treatment. Many men with localized or early-stage prostate cancer can be effectively treated and be in remission for many years. For those with more advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, treatment can often control the disease and extend life. The duration of treatment and its success can vary widely among individuals.

Prostate cancer can be cured if it is detected in precancerous or very early stages.

Many men with localized prostate cancer can achieve complete remission through treatments like surgery or radiation therapy. However, in some cases, especially when cancer has spread to other parts of the body, doctors recommend treatment to control the disease and prolong survival. Regular monitoring and follow-up care are essential to managing the disease effectively.

Prostate cancer surgery, known as radical prostatectomy, can be highly successful, especially when the cancer is localized or in its early stages. Success rates vary, but many patients experience complete removal of cancerous tissue and long-term remission. The success of surgery depends on factors such as the surgeon's skill, the patient's overall health, and the extent of cancer.

Advances in surgical techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery, have improved outcomes and reduced side effects, making surgery a viable option for many men with prostate cancer.

The best way to remove prostate cancer depends on individual factors and the stage of the cancer. The primary treatment options for removing prostate cancer include surgery (radical prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam or brachytherapy), and active surveillance in certain low-risk cases. The choice of treatment should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider who considers factors such as cancer stage, patient age, overall health, and personal preferences. Each prostate cancer treatment option has its advantages and potential side effects.

Preparing for a prostate cancer diagnosis involves several steps:

  • Consultation: Schedule an appointment with a urologist or oncologist to discuss your concerns and symptoms.
  • Medical History: Be prepared to provide your complete medical history, including any family history of cancer.
  • Testing: Your doctor may order tests, such as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, a digital rectal exam (DRE), and possibly a biopsy to diagnose prostate cancer.
  • Questions: Prepare a list of questions to ask your healthcare provider during your appointment to better understand your diagnosis and treatment options.
  • Support: Consider seeking emotional support from family, friends, or support groups, as a cancer diagnosis can be emotionally challenging.

Prostate cancer recurrence after surgery is possible but not guaranteed. The risk of recurrence depends on various factors, including the aggressiveness of the cancer, the stage at diagnosis, and the success of the surgical procedure. If cancer does recur, it is often detected through regular follow-up PSA tests and medical imaging. In such cases, additional treatments, such as radiation therapy or hormone therapy, may be recommended to manage the recurrence. Early detection and prompt treatment can significantly improve outcomes in cases of recurrence.

No, benign prostatic hyperplasia is a non-cancerous condition that remains localized and is, therefore, treated with less aggressive treatment approaches. Treatment for prostate cancer, on the other hand, is a malignant condition that can spread to various organs if it is not treated on time, and therefore, it is treated with aggressive treatment regimens.

Various tests are recommended for the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer. The commonly used tests include the PSA test, digital rectal examination, biopsy, imaging scans, and bone scans.

We do not have sufficient data to know if delaying prostate calcification treatment can increase prostate cancer risk.

However, it is important to receive timely treatment for prostate-related conditions, as delaying it can affect the overall health and quality of life of patients.

Prostate cancers that are still in a precancerous condition or in very early stages can be cured. However, follow-up care monitoring becomes important after the treatment in order to reduce the risk of recurrence.